The Five Power Defence Agreement, (FPDA), was created with membership by Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United Kingdom. This alliance was created as a result of the withdrawal of British forces east of Suez, where the parties agreed ‘to consult each other in the event of any perceived external threat to Malaysia or Singapore’. Originally land, sea, and air forces of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom were based in Malaysia and Singapore, but these were gradually withdrawn over the next 20 years. Despite this, the ‘Five Powers’ conduct regular exercises, in Malaysia and Singapore, controlled by the Headquarters Integrated Area Defence System, (HQIADS).
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